Getting started with Raspberry Pi on Windows
What you need
SD card with at least 4 GB capacity
PC or Notebook with SD card slot
Download latest Raspbian image: http://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/
Download and install Win32Diskimager: http://sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/
Download and install Putty (SSH client): http://www.putty.org/
Writing Raspbian image to SD card
Open Win32Diskimager, select the earlier downloaded Raspbian image ("Image File") and the drive ("Device") where you have put the SD card into.
Once this is done press "Write" to write the image file.
Wait till the SD card is completely written. This can take several minutes.
Starting the Raspberry Pi
Now we can put the SD card into the Raspberry Pi's SD card slot
Once this is done, we can prepare the Raspberry Pi for it's first boot. So we the LAN cable and connect the power supply (micro USB).
Setup Raspberry Pi after first startup
To be able to connect to the Raspberry Pi via Putty (or any other SSH client) we need to know the IP address of the Raspberry Pi. I assume the Raspberry Pi is connected to your network with a DHCP server on your router. In this case you might get the IP address from admin web interface of your router.
With the IP address you can now connect to your Raspberry Pi with Putty.
Once you have entered the IP address, just click open. Putty will complain about some wrong/missing keys, just ignore it and continue.
After that, you will be asked to login.
Default user name is "pi", default password is "raspberry".
Now we start the raspi-config tool where some basic things can be configured.
To make sure that Raspbian will utilize the full SD card size, select "Expand Filesystem"
All other options in raspi-config have to be set according to your needs.
Once you have finished raspi-config, we will now update the Linux system by executing the command "sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade".