Getting started with Raspberry Pi on Windows

What you need

Raspberry Pi
SD card with at least 4 GB capacity
PC or Notebook with SD card slot
Download latest Raspbian image: http://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/
Download and install Win32Diskimager: http://sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/
Download and install Putty (SSH client): http://www.putty.org/

Writing Raspbian image to SD card

Open Win32Diskimager, select the earlier downloaded Raspbian image ("Image File") and the drive ("Device") where you have put the SD card into.
Setup Win32Diskimager for Raspbian SD card setup

Once this is done press "Write" to write the image file.
Write Raspbian image to SD card

Wait till the SD card is completely written. This can take several minutes.

Starting the Raspberry Pi

Now we can put the SD card into the Raspberry Pi's SD card slot
Howto insert SD card into Raspberry Pi - step 1
Howto insert SD card into Raspberry Pi - step 2

Once this is done, we can prepare the Raspberry Pi for it's first boot. So we the LAN cable and connect the power supply (micro USB).
Connect Raspberry Pi to LAN and power

Setup Raspberry Pi after first startup

To be able to connect to the Raspberry Pi via Putty (or any other SSH client) we need to know the IP address of the Raspberry Pi. I assume the Raspberry Pi is connected to your network with a DHCP server on your router. In this case you might get the IP address from admin web interface of your router.

With the IP address you can now connect to your Raspberry Pi with Putty.
Putty settings for Raspberry Pi connection

Once you have entered the IP address, just click open. Putty will complain about some wrong/missing keys, just ignore it and continue. After that, you will be asked to login.
Putty Raspberry Pi login

Default user name is "pi", default password is "raspberry".
Putty Raspberry Pi login

Now we start the raspi-config tool where some basic things can be configured.
Start raspi-config

To make sure that Raspbian will utilize the full SD card size, select "Expand Filesystem"
raspi-config expand filesystem

All other options in raspi-config have to be set according to your needs.

Once you have finished raspi-config, we will now update the Linux system by executing the command "sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade".
Raspbian update